Diabetes is a degenerative disease in which insulin producing cells are decreased resulting in increase of blood glucose (sugar) level. Glucose is a kind of sugar that comes from the foods. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into cells to produce energy. Pancreas is an organ in a human body which is responsible for the production ofinsulin.
It is further divided in to two categories
- Type 1 Diabetes
- Type 2 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, a human body does not produce insulin and it is by birth.
In Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, a body does not produce or due to any resistance it does not use insulin optimally. Without enough insulin, the glucose in excessive quantity stays in blood.
One can also have prediabetes. This means that blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts a person at higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
HOW DOES THE DIABETES TREATED TRADITIONALLY?
Traditional way of treating diabetes comprises of only two methods which are
- Oral medication
- Insulin Injections
Frequent blood sugar checks, and carbohydrate counting are taken to attain patient’s progress/condition.
In some cases, type 1 diabetes can be cured via pancreas transplant. After a successful pancreas transplant, a patient no longer need insulin therapy. Though transplants aren’t always successful and they also pose serious risks. A patient may need a lifetime of immune-suppressing drugs to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, including a high risk of infection, organ injury and cancer. Since the side effects can be more dangerous than the diabetes, Thereforetransplants are done for patients whose diabetes can’t be controlled otherwise, or those who also need a kidney transplant.
How Stem Cell works to cure diabetes?
Stem cells are able to differentiate into the cells of countless organs and tissues within the human body, which means they have the ability to grow into different kinds of cells, including insulin-producing cells. There are a different methods of stem cell treatment for diabetes. We use adult stem cells as they can restore damaged beta cells of pancreas very effectively. It involves harvesting the patient’s own stem cells, extracted from bone marrow.